Learning during Covid Times

Last one year of pandemic has led us through a lot of difficulties in our academic life. We are still in that phase and we do not know when we will be coming out of it. But to strike a positive note, let us all thank God that this pandemic, at least happened in 2020, but not 20 or even 10 years earlier. If it had happened then, we may not have had enough solutions to overcome this situation. Now, imagine, what might have been the situation faced by,
especially, students, teachers and the Institute on the whole. I do not want to even think about it, it’s scary! Everyone – institute, teachers, students and parents are going through a new phase in our lives. Almost every day, we are facing new challenges and new experiences. But as a human, we are adapting to the new challenges and trying our best to cope up to this new normal. Just think for a minute, when raising these questions in your mind – what is our goal? what is our intention? and what we want to achieve by doing this? Yes, learning it is! Whatever be the situation, the learning should not stop – academic life should move on. Learning, thereby gaining knowledge, is the only way to move forward in this world. We owe a lot to the researchers, scientists, technologists, corporates, learning institutes and universities who have done decades of work to get vaccines (for Covid19 at record time – within one year!), and for providing us with all the necessary technological solutions so that we can learn, discuss, meet, write exams and evaluate virtually from our homes. Without their work, we will not be like what we are now in this pandemic era. So, students, my kind advice is, you may face difficulties, but these difficulties should not deviate you from the main focus, that is, learning. And also, remember the fact that success does not come overnight – means, it comes when you take smaller steps for a considerable number of times rather than taking one or two large steps at infrequent times. I am sure, we all will overcome this situation and continue our learning in this new normal world to make the world much safer, richer and peaceful.

CovID MuSings

This short passage was written for an internal magazine at my work place. I am just reproducing it here.

Gajavadana Karuna Sadhana” (a well-known song in the Carnatic Music world) became Gajavadana Corona Sadana” for my 8 year old daughter — Impact of Corona! We might get BCE and CE redefined as Before Carona Era and Corona Era. At first, CE was thought to be over in few weeks, then months and now the actual answer is we don’t know! Do you know a disease that has an ID in (for) it? Yes, it is CovID! These days the only objective for the world is to survive this pandemic spell. But, if we want to survive this dreadful spell we need to do this — ForbID CovID and MorbID conditions. As simple as that! But how will you forbid them? To avoID covid you know what needs to be done — being hygienic, wearing mask, physical distancing (I will not call it as social distancing) and so on. But, if you want to avoid morbid conditions then you need to be healthy and follow a good lifestyle. This is a major concern for people in this pandemic situation than Covid itself. With most of us sitting at home it is very important to keep yourself positive, healthy and active. When you are working from home there is a high probability that you become lethargic, bored, and sometime fatigued too. So, keeping a schedule and thereby a routine for your day is very important. Best idea is to choose a passion that you like the most and make things scheduled around it. In my case, Carnatic music is my passion. So, I started rekindling what I had learned when I was in teens — Soundarylahari (100 slokas) written by Adi Sankaracharya tuned in 100 different ragas. For 100 days, during the acute lockdown, from May to August I recalled, practised and recorded each sloka one day and uploaded it onto my YouTube channel. This made me to schedule things easily. Music became a fulcrum, my singing a lever and other important things the wheel — made me to run my life peacefully!

Four years in Academics

I completed four years in academics few days back. When I look back, especially at these last four years, I could see that I have added value for myself, to the student community, to the institute and to the nation as a whole. That’s the beauty of being in academics – you can add value locally and globally! But still, I would say that there were bouncy and flat periods in it, which is in addition to the coming-nicely-on-to-the-bat periods (World Cup effect!). One needs all kind of scenarios to equip him(her)self right! So, no complaints here.

This is how I had summarised at the end of my first year in academics:

In the first year my first job was to get acclimatise as a good teacher which I have done to an extend, now my priority is to do good research with students and publish well! Smiles in your student faces bring miles of satisfaction and that is second to none!

See this blog entry done three years ago: https://intellectualnausea.wordpress.com/2016/06/17/one-year-old/

With more administrative work that came on my way (as DoFA) in my second year it took a lot out of me, since (1) administration is a different ball game, (2) I had no experience in administration (3) it is not my piece of cake and (4) academics administration is not a difficult job but it takes lot of your time. During this catch-the-neck like scenario, I was able to somehow withstand the teaching part – I could try lots of innovative ideas to improve my teaching and at the same time, my students learning experience also. I succeeded in some and failed in some but ultimately learnt a lot more from the mistakes. Hence on the teaching part, I would say that on the whole I have succeeded by God’s grace. But the part that took a little beating was my research part. There were few reasons for this but the prime reason was I could not devote considerable time for it. Change in my area of research also added to that misery. But one lucky thing I got during this second year period was, getting two PhD students to work with me. I could continue the research part through these two students who, in turn, worked with my UG and PG students. This helped me to create a nice group / ecosystem as like in IITs and other world class institutions – PhD students working on the conceptual part and the UG students looking after the implementation and experimentation part. But I should note here that there were highly passionate UG students who got involved in research and came out with good results!

My administrative responsibilities as DoFA came to a close few months back and since then I have been able to focus more on the research part – now I am able to devote more time with less intervention from the other side of the academic quarters. With one PhD student seeing the horizon and another one feeling the horizon I sense that the progress is really good. There is no doubt that this is only going to improve further and further.

There were many small but important lessons that I learnt during this last three years period. I would like to list it here and explain how I tried my best to address those issues:

  • The most important thing that I have learned here in academics is to say “No” to things which I think are not possible for me to take it. I am, in general, a very flexible person in nature. So I had a habit of accepting more and more work that came on my way and I was elastically stretching myself beyond my threshold. This led to various stress related issues and I learnt the lessons in a very hard way. Now I take my time before accepting anything that come my way, and if I feel that it is worthwhile to be taken, and I deserve to do it, then I will accept, if not I will say No. Main point we need to understand here is that when you say No, we need to give proper justification, which may not be needed when you say Yes! If you have an objective and focus in your career you have to be selfish too. There is no other go! This has actually helped me to even out things and concentrate only on things that genuinely require my attention.
  • Other main issue I faced in academics was the issue of frequent context-switching. Let me explain what I meant by it here. In corporate atmosphere, you have a project at hand and you will immerse deeply into it. When you are working in that project, you may not get any other assignment until you finish that one. But in the case of a job in academics, especially from Associate Professor category onwards whether you like it or not, you are going to get both academics related admin work, in addition to teaching and research work. Hence there are three categories of work you may get: academic administration, teaching and research. Most of these last three years, many a times I have to hip-hop between various responsibilities. When you do that you may have to do the context-switching from admin to research, from research to teaching and so on very often. Even within one field, that is, research, you may have to hip-hop. You may work in various different problems with different types of students. So quick context-switching is necessary – and that’s where my problem was. I have got used to this lately by planning my schedule of work beforehand. If I had not planned for a work and that work is not of higher priority, I usually defer it for another day. That gives me sometime to plan for it. At this time, I still remember my Postdoc advisor Prof. Helmut Jurgensen‘s advice to me – one work at a time!
  • On the research side, I was facing a different problem. After I came back to academic from corporate life, my main focus area in research has changed from Theoretical Computer Science to Web Science. In Theoretical Computer Science, during my tenure as a research student, validation of result is done through Theorems and Proofs. But in the area of Web Science, Theorems and Proofs are not possible in most of the cases. So, only way to validate the results is by doing empirical analysis. The switch from mathematical proofs to empirical analysis took a lot of time for me to understand. I am still getting used to it. This comes only through experience.
  • Every research topic is different and within each research topic, every research problem is different. So, for a new entrant in a research topic, it is difficult to judge the standard of the problem and the results that (s)he is working on. Hence, when I met my research students I said that we are going to aim at top-tier conferences first for our publications. Main reason being by comparing our papers with papers at top-tier conferences, we shall come to know our level and through critical comments from the reviewers, we shall be able to improve on our negative points. By sending to tier-two conferences we may get more publications, but there will not be much opportunities to improve our knowledge in that specific or related topic. By using this approach, we have had almost 75% rejection rate on our submissions, but it has immensely helped me and my students to go much deeper into our problems which we would not have even imagined. Now we are at a threshold of acceptance in a top-tier conference. Hope it goes through in the next few months.

Just a few weeks ago, I was telling one of my very passionate student that life is not only about change. Change in life is not the correct word here. It gives only importance to what you are presently or what you will be in future – change is like ON/OFF switch – either you change to ON or OFF. But life is more about how one evolves – evolve, also includes change, but it also includes “how you changed and what made you to change” in addition to the lessons that you have learned. So, in a nutshell I am evolving in my academics life and thereby finding myself in my academics life. Hope I learn more and more – since, academics is to learn together!

EDIT: Corrected some typo errors…

Ahaa! Blockchain! – LNM Distinguished Lecture by Prof. Pandu Rangan

Prof. Pandu Rangan gave an engrossing lecture on Ahaa! Blockchain! on Oct 20, 2018 at LNMIIT as part of LNM Distinguished Lecture Series. The lecture was well attended even though it was scheduled during the long Navrathri days. The talk was supposed to be from 2 to 3 pm but it went until 3.30pm and actually the listeners at the end of the talk got the feeling that they needed more!

Professor started the lecture with a question – where should I begin? He answered with a popular quote let us begin from the beginning!  He mentioned that Aha moment is an intellectual moment. It occurs when an idea strikes like a lightening and Blockchain is such an Aha moment that has the potential to change the world into a completely new direction. In the talk he mentioned several Aha moments that I shall try to summarise it here. In no way this blog covers all the points mentioned in the talk but it gives an overall summarisation of the whole 1.30 hours talk. I am not an expert in this area so if there are any mistakes here I take responsibility – please mention the mistake I shall correct and edit it here.

He first touched upon the double spending issue in the financial world which had a big cascading effect especially in the Western World that brought the bank systems to almost a halting state. He added that this happens mainly because entities which receives payments are unaware of the fact if truly sufficient source money is available or not. This is similar to giving cheques for ₹50 each to two people when there is only ₹60 is available with you. Hence if the information about the availability of source money is there with all, in a decentralised manner, this double spending need not be a big problem – since such transitions could be rejected at the first instance itself. But if all the financial data is going to be with all, then we need to take care of the security, privacy, and anonymity of all the transactions.  Also, when the network is distributed it requires consensus.

Distributed consensus is a well studied problem and we have good results for the same. But here we are talking about decentralisation and not distributed computing, where we know various information about the systems involved like the name, the location, how many are there and so on. In a decentralised network it is on a completely nameless network with no information about how many systems are there (of course, we can give an estimate but cannot be exact), which are the systems are active at the moment and so on. Hence the complexity is more in the case of decentralisation with incomplete information about the network.

A man virtually known as Satoshi Nakamoto came up with this ingenious solution. Aha moment! He blended two concepts – bitcoin (a virtual currency) and a distributed ledger that stores the transaction information in chain of blocks. Each block created for a transaction has to be approved and that requires a consensus. Blockchain is the abstraction for several transaction pooled with time stamps. Here the sequence is strictly maintained. Moreover, here the only operation allowed is Append – that means we can only append to the existing sequence with a new block once it is accepted through a protocol.  Also, block rejection will be a loss of money for the transaction initiator. To avoid the inconsistencies the chain is built in a unique way. But, in reality, that may not be the case as there may be a chance that a fork might happen in the chain that may create two or more parallel chains from the forking junction that may lead to inconsistencies. Here again, Nakamoto’s work provides a way. Another aha moment! His theoretical work guarantees that by accepting the longest chain at any point of forking instances we will be able to achieve the uniqueness of the chain and thereby avoiding inconsistencies.

Professor quoted here we are humans who build solutions for the problems but at the same time we are humans who find problems in the solutions! Consequently this problem is not yet fully solved. It is evolving and new ideas emerging almost every week. The biggest open problem to solve here is can we prevent the 51% attack – a hypothetical, but still a possible scenario where more than 50% of the bit coin miners can combine together and pool their resources in and prevent new transactions from gaining confirmations. This will result in halting payments between specific, any, or all users (denial-of-service attack). This scenario might also lead to reversing the transactions that were completed before and make double spending possible. To a query from a student Professor mentioned that blockchain transaction would not be ideal for transactions involving smaller money. It is mainly meant for only transactions involving huge money. He also briefly mentioned about Ethereum project and its fully open source framework to do bitcoin transaction using blockchain technology.

Lot to be done, lot to be learned and lot to be experienced – hence this is an exciting area to do research and Professor, at last, invited all of us – welcome to the world of blockchain!

Two years in Academic Administration

I am completing two years as DoFA at my Institute today! These two years have been a great learning experience for me. Within 1 year and 3 months of coming to an academic job, it was a big surprise for me when the management asked me to take over the DoFA office. It was a big task for me but since I like to get challenges I accepted it but after a little hesitation. In this post I want to scribble out my thoughts about my learning experiences in these 2 years. I am not coining some of the points below as complaints or as a warning but as hard facts that I learnt the hard way. I am writing this in the hope that it will be helpful to young faculty members who want to venture into academic administrative responsibilities in their future.

First of all within my few months of assuming office I understood that DoFA is a unique responsibility in the sense that the office has to have communication with both internal members of the institute and members who are outside the institute. The responsibilities include taking care of internal faculty member’s issues, search, find and communicate with candidates who are aspiring to become faculty members and also with well-established researchers and teachers from top institutes of India and abroad for inviting them to the institute for various engagements. Compare this with other Dean offices – their span is either only internal or external or both but only to a very limited extent! This means as a DoFA you should have a good network inside and outside the organisation.

Faculty recruitment process is one of the most important responsibilities of DoFA. Here comes DoFA office’s efforts to arrive at a consensus among the departments about which one to go first, whom to be called for the interviews, whom to be called as experts, on which date to conduct the interviews (most people prefer to have it during / closer to the weekend!). This work becomes heavier if your office is not supported by enough people or it is not supported by people who are not experienced enough in this field – since communication with faculty or prospective faculty members require a level of maturity for “obvious” reasons! In my experience on one occasion, I had to stop the office from communicating few things to someone as I found a huge error at the very last moment when it was about to be sent with a click of a button. Luckily, at the last moment I found it and stopped or else my head would have been smashed! These days we use communication through electronic means. It has its own benefits – communicating with people is faster but at the same time in the e-mode making mistake or overlooking something is also easier! Since DoFA is overall accountable for any issues that might arise these communication has to be handled in a very careful manner. Remember here we may be communicating with external people who are not with the institute. So if we do a mistake this is going to propagate to the outside world and it will set a very bad name for the institute. Hence if the office is not mature enough to handle these, it’s better that DoFA does it just to avoid confusions later. Then more complications may arise – you may not have anyone to remind you of the pending communication or much needed followups. Many times I have put reminders to reminders to remind me on a specific communication that I need to do. Sometimes these communication might be critical if this is not done there will be a cascading effect. Sometime when you as a DoFA communicate with the candidates you may expect some lame questions from them. It all depends on you if you should entertain such questions or not.

DoFA is one of the thankless job – if there are any issues people will come to talk to you for several minutes together or write an essay kind of an email. If the issues are sorted then there is no one going to come to you to say that the issue is now sorted out, leave alone saying thank you! In fact that’s the nature of the job too! No complaints about it, but that’s what the fact is and one has to be prepared to face it. Few times I have got petty issues like – Sir, those labourers working nearby are making noise I am not able to work – as a DoFA can you please tell them not to do make noise? Well as DoFA you may have to hear all those things!

If you want to be friendly with all faculty members do not become a DoFA! In fact, after you become DoFA some of the faculty members may treat you as an enemy too! Main reason is some of them may take things personally and think that DoFA is against him/her – it’s natural since their point of view is “self” and DoFA’s point of view is “institute” – perspectives differ here. In fact, people who were previously very friendly with me have turned into people who only talk about the faculty issues whenever they meet me informally. So you may get more of negative news from all quarters and with all these negativism around, you have to swim through and survive – patience is the key. My character and my intention in life is to be positive, hear positivity, be constructive and move forward but the nature of the job was totally opposite to that and I had to do some conscious and deliberate changes within myself to get accustom to the new situation. It was extremely hard to do these changes and I am still learning!

People in academic administrative responsibilities always face this issue when looking for furthering their career (for example, promotion) – should the institute consider the admin work done by a faculty more or the research and teaching work they did more. It’s always a tradeoff between these two since admin work takes a lot of your time and energy. But it is a good challenge if you like the nature of this job. There are many faculty members I have seen who do these admin jobs very passionately. But considering an academic institution we must note down that teaching is an essential part of it so you should never neglect it. This tradeoff between admin and research / teaching is a big debate and there is no answer to it to see which one to weigh more. There is no single generalised answer to this. Lot’s of grey out there and it is very subjective in nature. But main point is we should understand this issue beforehand so that we may prepare accordingly when you are thinking of furthering your career. If the management is good and reasonable then I am sure they will consider these cases in a case-by-case basis. In my case, I never shoved away from teaching responsibilities that I got from the department. In fact after becoming DoFA I started teaching core courses for very big classes and started building my research team called Web Science team at my institute. For me, that’s the tonic for me that keeps me going and growing. In fact, that’s why I came to academics leaving out lucrative offers that I got in the industry.  To be frank, I would say I am working more harder than when I was in industry! Now I work because I want to work rather than being asked to work! Moreover, I was basically an unorganised person and I work in an intuitive manner but the nature of this office responsibilities forced me to become organised and be more rational. Now to become more organised I have started using Google calendars for myself to track down various meetings and discussion and Trello to note and track down the status of various research teams working under me. Technology is helping me to a greater extend.

DoFA is an institute-wide position so the decision that the office arrive at should take in view of the future and betterment of the institute. Generally my character is to make everyone related to me and around me happy. But the nature of this job is completely opposite to this fact! So sometimes when we make a collective decision for the betterment of the institute there will be some heartburns for some of the faculty members who otherwise might be very close to you personally. Hence the hardest lesson that I learnt after becoming DoFA – if you want everyone to be happy don’t be a DoFA sell ice cream! Basically if your intentions are good for the institute you simply should go ahead with a broad consensus.

One Year Old!

I am an one year old baby in academics and this post is going to be a collection of my thoughts I have had for the past one year or so (before and after joining academics). In this first post I will concentrate on my general thoughts about joining LNMIIT. In the next post I will write on my thoughts on academics versus corporate.

To change from the world of “Hi” and “Bye” types to the world of “Good morning sir!” types was not an easy transformation personally, emotionally, economically, psychologically, socially, academically and logistically. When I decided to move out of an IT job my only aim was to regain my academic strength which I felt had lost its rigour when I was working in industry. When many IITs started showing only the entry level positions for me even after my industrial experience I decided I am not going to join an IIT at least as of now. That was the first jolt on my head. To add to the misery in one of the interviews for an IIT faculty position one of very senior professor from my parent institution whom I know very well passed on a comment directly to me on face that I have lost that midas touch that I was having during my PhD time after joining the industry. Even though I felt really bad hearing those words after few days I regained my composure. I took that comment positively and this made me even more stronger to look for avenues other than IITs. With some IIITs that I was interested in did not show interest in me because of my research topic I had to seriously look for the next tier institutes. That moment I came to know about LNMIIT and a few other private institutions through some colleagues and seniors. This is the moment I got some good advice from my colleagues and seniors. I will not name any one here but they still are my  great advisors.

As you all know in India private institutions are many but very few are of “some” class. Most of these institutions are teaching institutes who go on producing and manufacturing most of the students basically for IT jobs with few for exporting them to US and other Western Institutions. They are just manufacturing industries and in most of these institutions the research part is almost zero. So my choices were very few and it made my decision easier in that sense. LNMIIT was one of the best option for me for the following reasons:

  • When LNMIIT was started the academic seeds were sown by very senior highly experienced IIT professors so the IIT environment to an extent is still prevalent here
  • Teachers are everything here. Once the course is allotted it is the teachers responsibility to handle the course in the manner that he/she wants to approach. This gives lots of academic freedom to the faculties that any older IITs enjoy
  • It is a deemed university so there is sufficient facility to create our own advanced level courses and deliver it in the sense that we want. For example, in some courses we may even take off the end semester exams and go ahead with capstone projects
  • Students should be good since LNMIIT selects most of the students on the basis of IIT JEE Main exams score and that is always greater than the cutoff for the IIT JEE advanced exam
  • Students selection is purely based on merit and merit only
  • Non-intrusive nature of the institute in the academic work of the faculties

At the same time when I thought of disadvantages I was thinking about the following:

  • Jaipur is too far away from my place of stay (Bangalore)
  • When compared to the places that I have lived in Jaipur is relatively not a very well developed city
  • Institute is not a very well known place even within India
  • Institute is primarily a UG based and so the number of masters and PhD students are very less. So it is going to be a difficult and challenging task for me to carry out research activities
  • Even within Jaipur the institute is far away from the city centre so finding schools and travelling daily to schools for my kids is going to be a very difficult task
  • Extreme climate in Jaipur is going to be a big issue. For anyone who has stayed in a place like Bangalore it is even more a bigger problem
  • Getting research projects from agencies especially the government agencies is going to be difficult and challenging

Every institution has its pros and cons due to various factors but the questions here is how are we going to take pros to our advantage and at the same time address the cons.  How did I address the disadvantages comes in the following paragraphs:

Even though Jaipur and Bangalore are too far away, fortunately, it is very well connected by air with 6 to 8 flights every day being operated between two cities as of today. Jaipur is less polluted, less crowded, less urbanised and not much traffic so its good for me – its an advantage! Institute is not a well known place in India. Yes true! But I remembered my postdoc advisor’s words – don’t be a tail in a king’s den rather join a place where you can be the head and show the path for success to others and build the place for yourself and others! Although I had heard these words quite long back it came like a lightning at the correct moment. Number of masters and PhD students is quite less but I saw that there is a high potential that we can increase this in the very near future. And I am also very hopeful that we can do research even with few of the top UG students and its very heartening to note that I have already done that with few students and many are in pipeline. So in the longer run it does not matter who he is/was what all matters is what work did you do with the students and the quality of the work. 

Institute is far away from the city centre was definitely a big issue for me – for, I don’t want my kids to suffer daily by travelling 30 kms to good schools rather I would take the burden of travelling daily. Best point in Jaipur is you could travel 20+ kms in 30 min which is quite impossible in Bangalore so when we compare distances in India we should compare the travel time only! And that too if there are other faculties who can car pool with you that’s the best thing to have isn’t it? That’s what I have got now!

Extreme climate is another big issue especially when you and your family had lived in a place like Bangalore. Hence myself and my family were prepared for this and it will be a great experience for my kids more than anything else. For me and my wife we have lived in a place in Canada where temperatures have ranged from -28 to +35 so this is going to be another experience for us. Summer has been burning hot but still my family is yet to face the winter here. So I have to wait and watch!

Research projects are just by-products of what you do. So if you do your work nicely and publish outside the projects will come so the onus is on me. Only thing I have to make sure is I get time, place and environment to do good research. In the first year my first job was to get acclimatise as a good teacher which I have done to an extend now my priority is to do good research with students and publish well!

Smiles in your student faces bring miles of satisfaction and that is second to none!

Update: Corrected small typo errors

Marvin Minsky

Marvin Minsky regarded as the father of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is no more. He left this physical world at the age of 88 last Sunday. This is a great loss to the world. But his exemplary works, his lectures, his books and his quotes still make him alive in this world and it will be a great guiding force for researchers in AI, Cognitive Sciences and other related areas.

Although I have read about his work in my younger days, the first time that I came across more seriously on his work was during my seven years stay at Infosys somewhere in the starting of the year 2010.  That was the time I got interested to know more about the area of Emotion Modelling and Emotion Analysis. I together with my colleague (Nirmal, one of the author of this blog site) started to think about what is emotion. Even though, at first, we came across many papers talking about emotions and its negative implications for a human-being in this world we had a feeling that emotion is not that negative as proclaimed in the works that we had collected, rather it should have more positive implications. Unless otherwise it would not have survived the evolution.

So, why did we think that there is more positivity into it. The reason is simple to say but hard to realise. Just think about a human not having any emotions at all. People will say then that what is the big deal he won’t show any expressions, that’s all. Answer to this is you are partially right but you have not understood emotion completely. You are seeing only the behavioral aspects of emotions but there are two more aspects to it. One is the physiological reactions that happens inside the body and the other one, which is the main thing – many will forget or not realise – is the inner feeling. So, when we study about emotions we may have to look into all three aspects. Coming back to the example that we were talking about unless you have emotions is there a way to change the monotonous way of thinking, to prioritize the things you need to do, to know/be aware of the importance of a thing/or an entity? This is what made us to think about the positiveness of emotions. That was the time we came across two of the works done by the legends in this field: (1) Herbert Simon and (2) Marvin Minsky. Herbert Simon in his work said that

“emotions perform the critical important function of interrupting normal cognition when some unattended goals require attention and servicing”       [Herbert Simon 1967]

Minsky in his book on Emotion Machine stated that

“emotions, intuitions, and feelings are not distinct things, but different ways of thinking”

The confidence and the ecstatic feeling that we got when we came across these two statements gave us cannot be explained in mere words. This turned a new leaf in our work. Yes, of course that’s why we call Minsky a legend, right? There may be many many in this world who would have got a new leaf in their life like us. This turned in a new chapter in our thinking and now we are sure that if we need to model emotion then cognition should not be left. Rather, we have to work towards a holistic unified model not a model that has “holes”in it!

All the more, Nirmal sent a mail to Minsky about some of our thinking on emotion treated as human’s resource for problem solving. Surprisingly, he had time to reply to that and that too with lots of positive notes! Such is his humility to answer even patzers in the field like us! That’s why he is a stalwart, is it not?

In fact, every page in his book on Society of Mind deserves at least one PhD work!

I had collected some of his quotes from the Internet and prepared a video out of that. All credits to the original posters of the quotes. This is a very small tribute to him.


A Journey through the World of Space and Beyond

Today was an afternoon to cherish. There are some events that happen and you forget when time goes on but there are some events that happen and sticks to your mind, inspires you and makes you wonder and motivated to ask yourself what I want, what have I done and what I want to do for the country! I am sure when Padma Vibhushan Dr. K. Kasturirangan’s inspiring talk for Plinth  2016 @ LNMIIT came to an end, students and even some faculties like me present there would have felt the same and will live with that kind of motivation and inspiration to do something good for the country.

Basically his talk was on the ISRO’s mission from 1970’s to 2015, his Chairman’s period from 1994 to 2003, his MP of Rajya Sabha from 2003 to 2009 and his present stay at INAE.

His talk started from his years where he started applying for research fellowships. He was very candid to admit that he did not have a vision or aim like to go for space organisation and think of sending satellites. His main aim was to do research work on Cosmic X-Rays sources in the space. But the events from then on and due to advice and guidance from the great Vikram Sarabhai and Prof. Satish Dhawan’s guidance took him to this stage. This shows that you may not have a specific goal in your life to achieve but if you take the events happening in your life to your advantage and excel in what you are doing you can achieve greater things in the longer run. This is a great lesson to the students.

Then he talked about his first project of putting a balloon in the atmosphere to measure some radiations in the atmosphere. First time when they tried on an early morning at 4am it did not succeed since the electronics behaved bad. But when V. Sarabhai met them and came to know about the failure he encouraged them and motivated them. Then within a week they addressed the issue and succeeded in their mission. When V. Sarabhai met them again and came to know about the success he appreciated the team and advised them that since you failed for the first time you would have now learnt ten times more than what you would have learnt when you would have succeeded in the first time itself. What you got from here – if you are with the right person and work hard then the success is guaranteed. Failures makes you sad at that moment but when you think in the long term it will be a stepping stone for your success.

When Prof. Satish Dhawan was the Chairman of ISRO there was an instance where there was a problem in the camera hosted in a satellite. He said in an internal meeting that the camera seems to be dead but an engineer told him that based on his simulation tests it will be fine after one week. This became a challenge between them to which Prof. Satish Dhawan promised the engineer that if he loses he will give his one month salary to him. To which the engineer, in turn, also challenged saying if he looses he will give his one month salary to him. After one week when the camera was switched on, it started working as expected and Prof. Satish Dhawan took a ₹5 note and signed and gave it to the engineer. Engineer got surprised and asked him only ₹5, you promised one month salary?! Prof. Satish Dhawan said yes in fact this money is five times my salary of ₹1 which I get from ISRO. He added that his actual salary is from IISc, Bangalore! These fun happening brought cheers to people and brought ISRO people together and helped them to succeed.

When Dr. K. Kasturirangan was at helm in ISRO he made the environment such that anybody can question anybody in the technical aspects and he added that this made the projects success percentage to grow. His main achievement which he himself admitted as the first success of GSLV launch was not done without problems. First day of the launch the rocket did not start. But he said that was the first time they had designed an aborting program that will stop the vehicle to stop if some thing goes wrong in the four boosters that surrounds the rocket. When they researched why the rocket did not start they found out one of the booster was working only 85% of its capacity so the abort program rightly stopped the vehicle from launching or else it would have created a mayhem. So even in the failure they learnt that the aborting program is working correctly! This is what is all about in real life – you may fail but take good things from it and move on do not get disgruntled with the failures.

His idea of lunar missions and planetary missions when put forth to the then Prime Minister A. B. Vajpayee, he named it Chandrayaan 1. When asked why “1” there, Vajpayee told him that why to restrict to one mission you can have many more missions!

He also talked about his Rajya Sabha days where he played an important role in the Nuclear deal with USA.

Reflection on my class

It has been years since this blog got updated. Its time to get started again!

The series of blog on “Reflection on my class”  as the title signifies will be a self-reflection on my classes in Unconventional Models of Computing (UMC) that I am presently taking for 6th semester bachelor students in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, LNMIIT, Jaipur.

First class on the first day of the year 2016! UMC as the name itself signifies the approach to do computing is unconventional. But first before going to describe about what is so unconventional about it I wanted to broaden their view about what is computer, computing, informatics and computer science. My emphasis was about this statement – computer science is not about computer but about computing! I gave some examples to pass on the message that nature also computes. For example, bio-organisms always want to survive and in order to achieve that it has various layers of protection very similar to our human immune systems. So, if nature computes can we use that naturally occurring computation somehow to do computation for solving our own computational problems using in vivo experiments? That was my question to the students. I told them this is what is our classes on UMC about – we are going to see how to use DNA strands, peptides, cells and its natural interactions to build a computational model that give rise to DNA computing, peptide computing and cellular computing, respectively.

My next idea was to make them understand with a bit more insight into how computing takes place and at the same time the problem biocomputing models faces. This I wanted to clarify even before explaining the advantages for using those models. Perhaps this can be taken as a disclaimer! For this two objectives, I took the example of our human computing evolution from using pebbles, abacus, calculators and computers. I told them using pebbles is computing. All the more when we use pebbles we represent it for some other physical object. We are finding a relation, in fact an 1-1 function. In an abacus, the same representation happens but there is a manual intervention (to move the beads) needed to do the computing – computing here basically is arithmetical operations. We have an algorithm but that is executed by a human. Now comes the calculator it also does (mainly) the same arithmetical operations (little more heavy) but once the input is given no need for any human intervention. Operations are performed automatically by the circuits inside. Now comes the basic silicon model computers where there is a stored program concept where we are offered some basic operations and we can write a program based on those basic operations and store it in the memory and can be executed anytime, anywhere and many times too. Here too, no manual intervention is needed. But in biocomputing models I showed this picture (taken from DNA Computing book)

Screen Shot 2016-01-02 at 2.53.45 PM

This picture presents us with many questions. Some essential questions to ask are

  1. Processing happens in test tubes. So, if two test tube solution is going to be poured into one who is going to do that?
  2. Who is going to find which test tube has to be selected and which test tube has to be left out?
  3. We may use a robot to do both the above steps but in that case who is going to instruct the robot?

So, in general biocomputing models needs manual intervention. As of now there is no stored program or automatic execution of program concepts. But it has its own advantages if not why are we going to study these models, isn’t it?  We will see this in the next series of posts.

The Circumplex Model of Affect

It has been quite sometime since we posted anything here. Here we go! This time we briefly explain about the circumplex model of affect.

We are familiar with many emotions. Are there any relations among them? Or, are they independent? Happiness and sadness looks dependent such that when one increases, the other decreases and vice versa. What about others like surprise and happiness? We cannot directly state a relation. These kinds of curiosities lead  to the circumplex model of affect.

So, what is circumplex model of affect?

This model postulates that the underlying structure of affective experience can be characterized as an ordering of affective states on the circumference of a circle as shown in the following figure.

Circumplex Model

Figure: The Circumplex Model of Affect [Promises and Problems with the Circumplex Model of Emotion,” by R. J. Larson and E. Diener, in M. S. Clark (Ed.), 1992, Review of Personality and Social Psychology: Emotion (Vol. 13, p. 31), Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Copyright 1992 by Sage]

Originally proposed by Schlosberg [Schlosberg, H. (1941). A scale for the judgment of facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, 497-510., Schlosberg, H. (1952). The description of facial expression in terms of two dimensions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44, 229-237.], this model is most extensively elaborated upon by Russell [Russell, J. A., & Pratt, G. (1980). A description of the affective quality attributed to environments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,38, 311-322].

According to this model, affective states should have decreasing positive correlations with one another as their separation from one another approaches 90°. At 90° separation, two affective states should be uncorrelated with one another. As the separation approaches 180°, affective states should have increasing negative correlations with one another. Here we can observe that it is plotted in a two dimensional scale (positive – negative and high arousal – low arousal). The following figure shows 28 affect words plotted in this scale.

28 Affect
28 Affect

Figure: 28 affect concepts in circular order [Russel, J Al, A circumplex model of affect, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 39, No. 6, pages 1161 – 1178].

There are some criticisms against this model. The criticisms are that the two dimensional representation fails to capture important aspects of emotional experience and therefore sometimes does not reflect crucial differences among some emotions, the model was formulated on the basis of a selection of emotions that was not guided by systematic sampling or clear theoretical guidelines, different versions of the model sometimes postulate different locations for affective states and that empirically affective states are not always located in their predicted regions of the circle, etc.